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يمتلك ، يحتوي ، يحمل ، يمسك

see also

lon, poki, lanpan

semantic space · lipamanka

jo is the act of holding, carrying, posessing, owning, or broadly having. The english word "have" tends to be pretty broad, and jo is no different, but the size of its semantic space differs between speakers. Some speakers will only use jo if an object is in someone's hand or they're holding it. Others will use jo for something as abstract as a word having sounds in it or a language having words in it. for some speakers, if I'm borrowing your book, you don't jo it anymore, I do, even if you own it. For other speakers, in that situation both you and I jo the book at the same time in different ways. When you use jo, you're drawing a metaphor between someone's relationship with an object and a world in which they're holding it in their hands. some people like to stretch this metaphor much farther than others.

ku translations

have100, possess95, carry90, contain75, own73, hold71, possession68, ownership67, consist42, include42, comprise41, grasp33, equip31, bring29, grip27

pu verbatim

VERB to have, carry, contain, hold


core · 99% usage

found in pu

coined pre-pu


Mandarin · 有 yǒu ‘have’

coined by jan Sonja

sitelen pona


perhaps a pictogram of a person pointing at themself or holding something

sitelen sitelen

jo sitelen sitelen

sitelen jelo


sitelen Emosi





kala Asi

jan Lakuse

luka pona

gif · mp4